Background: Older patients with end stage renal disease (ESRD) are at increased risk for cognitive decline, but detailed studies of the magnitude of cognitive decline on dialysis or comprehensive conservative management (CCM) are lacking and the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms have poorly been studied.
Objectives: To describe the rationale and design of the COPE study. Study objectives are as follows. Firstly, to examine the severity of cognitive impairment in older patients reaching ESRD before dialysis and the rate of decline after dialysis or CCM initiation. Secondly, to study the association of blood biomarkers for microvascular damage and MRI derived measurements of small vessel disease with the rate of cognitive decline. Thirdly, to examine to what extent cardiac function is related to brain structure and perfusion in patients reaching ESRD. Finally, to study the association of cognitive and functional capacity with quality of life in pre-dialysis patients, as well as after dialysis or CCM initiation.
Study design and methods: The COPE study is a prospective, multicenter cohort study in the Netherlands, including prevalent and incident pre-dialysis patients ≥65 years old with eGFR ≤20 ml/min/1.73 m2, awaiting either dialysis or CCM initiation. At baseline extensive data is collected including a comprehensive geriatric assessment and laboratory tests. Brain and cardiac MRI for analysis of structural and functional abnormalities are performed at baseline and repeated following therapy change. All other measurements are repeated annually during four years of follow up, including an extra evaluation six months after initiation of dialysis.
Conclusions: Knowledge of the magnitude of cognitive decline and its underlying pathophysiological mechanism, as well as its impact on functionality and quality of life can eventually help to postulate an algorithm for well balanced decision making in treatment strategies in older patients reaching ESRD.
|Title||The Cognitive decline in Older Patients with End stage renal disease (COPE) study – rationale and design|
|Date||11 February 2017|
|Issue name||Current Medical Research and Opinion|
|Issue number||33:11, 2057-2064, DOI: 10.1080/03007995.2017.1341404|